These effects are created from the various filters which are applied to different layers of an image and combined together using different blending modes. More about these can be found in "John Beardsworth. 2005. Photoshop Blending Modes Cookbook for Digital Photographers : 49 Easy-to-Follow Recipes to Fix Problem Photos and Create Amazing Effects. O'Reilly Media." ISBN0596100205.
Below is the original image before applying the effects:-